.>Rheumatology..7.:.132–1136..Bi.o.o.reatment or sham therapy for chronic low back pain only in the short term immediately after treatment. 100 The same review also found that acupuncture is not more effective than conventional therapy and other alternative medicine treatments. 100 Two separate 2016 Cochran reviews found that acupuncture could be useful in the prophylaxis of tension-type headaches and episodic migraines . 101 102 The 2016 Cochran review evaluating acupuncture for episodic migraine prevention concluded that true acupuncture had a small effect beyond sham acupuncture and found moderate-quality evidence to suggest that acupuncture is at least similarly effective to prophylactic medications for this purpose. 102 A 2012 review found that acupuncture has demonstrated benefit for the treatment of headaches, but that safety needed to be more fully documented in order to make any strong recommendations in support of its use. 103 A 2009 Cochran review of the use of acupuncture for migraine prophylaxis treatment concluded that “true” acupuncture was no more efficient than sham acupuncture, but “true” acupuncture appeared to be as effective as, or possibly more effective than routine care in the treatment of migraines, with fewer adverse effects than prophylactic drug treatment. 104 The same review stated that the specific points chosen to needle may be of limited importance. 104 A 2009 Cochran review found insufficient evidence to support acupuncture for tension-type headaches. 104 The same review found evidence that suggested that acupuncture might be considered a helpful non-pharmacological approach for frequent episodic or chronic tension-type headache. 104 A 2014 review concluded that “current evidence supports the use of acupuncture as an alternative to traditional analgesics in osteoarthritis patients.” 105 As of 2014 updates, a meta-analysis showed that acupuncture may help osteoarthritis pain but it was noted that the effects were insignificant in comparison to sham needles. 106 A 2013 systematic review and network meta-analysis found that the evidence suggests that acupuncture may be considered one of the more effective physical treatments for alleviating pain due to knee osteoarthritis in the short-term compared to other relevant physical treatments, though much of the evidence in the topic is of poor quality and there is uncertainty about the efficacy of many of the treatments. 107 A 2012 review found “the potential beneficial action of acupuncture on osteoarthritis pain does not appear to be clinically relevant.” 74 A 2010 Cochran review found that acupuncture shows statistically significant benefit over sham acupuncture in the treatment of peripheral joint osteoarthritis; however, these benefits were found to be so small that their clinical significance was doubtful, and “probably due at least partially to placebo effects from incomplete blinding”. 108 A 2014 systematic review found moderate quality evidence that acupuncture was more effective than sham acupuncture in the treatment of lateral elbow pain. 109 A 2014 systematic review found that although manual acupuncture was effective at relieving short-term pain when used to treat tennis elbow, its long-term effect in relieving pain was “unremarkable”. 110 A 2007 review found that acupuncture was significantly better than sham acupuncture at treating chronic knee pain; the evidence was not conclusive due to the lack of large, high-quality trials. 111 Nausea and vomiting and post-operative pain A 2014 overview of systematic reviews found insufficient evidence to suggest that acupuncture is an effective treatment for postoperative nausea and vomiting pond in a clinical setting. 112 A 2013 systematic review concluded that acupuncture might be beneficial in prevention and treatment of pond. 113 A 2009 Cochran review found that stimulation of the P6 acupoint on the wrist was as effective or ineffective as anti emetic drugs and was associated with minimal side effects. 112 114 The same review found “no reliable evidence for differences in risks of postoperative nausea or vomiting after P6 acupoint stimulation compared to anti emetic drugs.” 114 A 2014 overview of systematic reviews found insufficient evidence to suggest that acupuncture is effective for surgical or post-operative pain. 112 For the use of acupuncture for post-operative pain, there was contradictory evidence. 112 A 2014 systematic review found supportive but limited evidence for use of acupuncture for acute post-operative pain after back surgery. 115 A 2014 systematic review found that while the evidence suggested acupuncture could be an effective treatment for postoperative gastroparesis, a firm conclusion could not be reached because the trials examined were of low quality. 116 Acupuncture is an unproven treatment for allergic immunologic conditions. 117 A 2015 meta-analysis suggests that acupuncture might be a good option for people with allergic rhinitis A, 118 and a number of randomized clinical trials CRTs support the use of acupuncture for A and itch . 119 There is some evidence that acupuncture might have specific effects on perennial allergic rhinitis PA, though all the efficacy studies were small and conclusions should be made with caution. 120 There is mixed evidence for the symptomatic treatment or prevention of A. 121 For seasonal allergic rhinitis SA, the evidence failed to demonstrate specific effects for acupuncture. 121 Using acupuncture to treat other allergic conditions such as contact eczema, drug rashes, or anaphylaxis is not recommended. 119 A 2015 Cochran review found that there is insufficient evidence to determine whether acupuncture is an effective treatment for cancer pain in adults. 122 A 2014 systematic review found that acupuncture may be effective as an adjunctive treatment to palliative care for cancer patients. 123 A 2013 overview of reviews found evidence that acupuncture could be beneficial for people with cancer-related symptoms, but also identified few rigorous trials and high heterogeneity between trials. 124 A 2012 systematic review of randomised clinical trials CRTs using acupuncture in the treatment of cancer pain found that the number and quality of CRTs was too low to draw definite conclusions. 125 A 2014 systematic review reached inconclusive results with regard to the effectiveness of acupuncture for treating cancer-related fatigue. 126 A 2013 systematic review found that acupuncture is an acceptable adjunctive treatment for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, but that further research with a low risk of bias is needed. 127 A 2013 systematic review found that the quantity and quality of available CRTs for analysis were too low to draw valid conclusions for the effectiveness of acupuncture for cancer-related fatigue . 128 A 2012 systematic review and meta-analysis found very limited evidence regarding acupuncture compared with conventional intramuscular injections for the treatment of hiccups in cancer patients. 129 The methodological quality and amount of CRTs in the review was low. 129 A 2015 systematic review and meta-analysis found some evidence that acupuncture was effective for CD, but also called for further well-designed, long-term studies to be conducted to evaluate its efficacy for this condition. 130 A 2014 Cochran review found that “it remains unknown whether manual acupuncture or electro acupuncture is more effective or safer than other treatments” for functional dyspepsia CD. 131 A 2014 systematic review and meta-analysis found poor quality evidence for use of acupuncture in infertile men to improve sperm motility, sperm concentration, and the pregnancy rate; the evidence was rated as insufficient to draw any conclusion regarding efficacy. 132 A 2013 Cochran review found no evidence of acupuncture for improving the success of in vitro fertilization VF. 133 A 2013 systematic review found no benefit of adjutant acupuncture for VF on pregnancy success rates. 134 A 2012 systematic review found that acupuncture may be a useful adjunct to VF, 135 but its conclusions were rebutted after re-evaluation using more rigorous, high quality meta-analysis standards. 136 A 2012 systematic review and meta-analysis found that acupuncture did not significantly improve the outcomes of in vitro fertilization. 137 A 2011 overview of systematic reviews found that the evidence that acupuncture was effective was not compelling for most gynecologic conditions. Traditionally, acupuncture was used to treat acute conditions cupping in China. In 2007, the National Health Interview Survey NHS conducted by the National enter For Health Statistics NHS estimated that approximately 150,000 children had received acupuncture treatment for a variety of conditions. conflicted with the West's own anatomical diagrams. Japanese.print by Suharaya Heisuke Acupuncture chart from Shisi Ming fahui Expression of the Fourteen Meridians written by Hun thou Al. 1340s, Ming dynasty .The Chen Jiu Jim Fi Jung, whiPh was released in the mid-3rd century, ended up being the earliest acupuncture book that is still in existence in the modern period. 29 Various other publications like the Cu Kuei Chen Chag, composed by the Director of Medical Solutions for China, were likewise significant throughout this period, yet were not protected. 29 In the mid 7th century, around assumed response areas of the hand. Even.f.hey.Gould concur, the ACM theories are so nebulous that no amount of clinical research study will certainly allow ACM to offer logical treatment.” 5 Some contemporary specialists sustain using acupuncture to treat pain, yet have deserted making use of qi, meridians, yin, yang and various other energies based in necromancy, as explanatory frameworks. 8 25 26 Making use of qi as an informative framework has actually been decreasing in China, also as it becomes much more famous during discussions of acupuncture in the US. 257 Academic discussions of acupuncture still refer to pseudo-scientific concepts such as qi as well as meridians despite the absence of clinical proof. 257 Lots of within the scientific area consider attempts to reason acupuncture in scientific research to be quackery, pseudo-science and “staged sugar pill”. 258 Academics Massimo Pigliucci as well as marten Boudry define it as a “borderlands scientific research” lying between scientific research and also pseudo-science. 259 Many acupuncturists connect pain relief to the launch of endorphins when needles permeate, yet no longer assistance the suggestion that acupuncture could affect a condition. 26 257 It is an usually held idea within the acupuncture neighbourhood that acupuncture points as well as meridians frameworks are special conduits for electrical signals yet no research study has actually established any regular physiological framework or function for either acupuncture factors or meridians. n 1 24 Human tests to determine whether electric continuity was considerably various near meridians compared to various other areas in the body have actually been undetermined. 24 Some researches recommend acupuncture creates a collection of occasions within the main nerve system, 260 and that it is possible to hinder acupuncture's analgesic impacts with the opioid antagonist naloxone. 261 Mechanical contortion of the skin by acupuncture needles shows up to result in the release of adenosine. 2 The anti-nociceptive impact of acupuncture could be moderated by the adenosine A1 receptor. 262 A 2014 Nature Reviews Cancer testimonial short article discovered that because the vital computer mouse studies that suggested acupuncture soothes acupuncture to cause bleeding, while others mixed the ideas of blood-letting as well as spiritual ch'i energy. Even.f.hey.Gould agree, the ACM concepts are so nebulous that no amount of clinical study will allow ACM to provide logical treatment.” 5 Some contemporary practitioners sustain the use of aacupuncture to treat pain, but have deserted using qi, meridians, yin, yang and various other powers based in necromancy, as informative frameworks. 8 25 26 Making use of qi as an explanatory structure has actually been lowering in China, even as it comes to be a lot more famous throughout discussions of acupuncture in the US. 257 Academic conversations of acupuncture still refer to pseudo-scientific principles such as qi as well as meridians in spite of the lack of scientific evidence. 257 Numerous within the scientific community consider efforts to justify acupuncture in scientific research to be quackery, pseudo-science and also “staged sugar pill”. 258 Academics Massimo Pigliucci and also marten Boudry explain it as a “borderlands scientific research” existing between scientific research and pseudo-science. 259 Several acupuncturists associate pain relief to the release of endorphins when needles permeate, but no longer assistance the suggestion that acupuncture could influence an illness. 26 257 It is a typically held belief within the acupuncture area that acupuncture factors as well as meridians frameworks are special channels for electrical signals but no research has developed any kind of constant anatomical structure or function for either acupuncture points or meridians. n 1 24 Human examinations to identify whether electrical connection was dramatically various near meridians compared to various other areas in the body have actually been undetermined. 24 Some researches suggest acupuncture creates a collection of events within the main nervous system, 260 which it is possible to hinder acupuncture's analgesic impacts with the opioid villain naloxone. 261 Mechanical contortion of the skin by acupuncture needles appears to result in the release of adenosine. 2 The anti-nociceptive impact of acupuncture might be mediated by the adenosine A1 receptor. 262 A 2014 Nature Reviews Cancer cells testimonial post discovered that given that the key computer mouse studies that recommended acupuncture alleviates Ed, 1. year Kyōhō = 1716. Thinner needles may be adaptable needling in the incorrect place, or at the incorrect time. 29:102 -103 Later, several needles were heated in boiling water, or in a fire. “Debunking Messages dated to be from 156-- 186 BC record very early beliefs in networks of life force power called meridians that would later on be a component in early acupuncture beliefs. 267 Ramey and stop claimed the “method and also Acupuncture academic bases” of modern acupuncture were introduced in the Yellow Emperor's Standard Huangdi Beijing around 100 BC. 28 267 It presented the idea of making use of acupuncture to control the flow of life energy qi in a network of meridian channels in the body. 267 272 The network idea was composed of acu-tracts, such as a line down the arms, where it stated acupoints were located. Korean.cupuncture uses copper needles and has a higher concentrate on the hand. 38 The Acupuncture graph from Shisi Ming fahui Expression of the Fourteen Meridians written by Hun thou Al. 1340s, Ming empire. Other.techniques target at “tonifying” Chinese: 补; pin yin: b or “sedating” Chinese: 泄; pin yin: xii qi. 52 The former methods are utilized in deficiency patterns, the latter in excess patterns. 52 De qi is more crucial in Chinese acupuncture, while Western and Japanese people could not consider it a required part of the treatment. 38 18460551. Occasionally needles were made use of while they were still hot, creating a cauterizing result at the injection website. 29:104 9 needles were suggested in the Chen chi Ta Cheng from 1601, which may have been due to an ancient Chinese belief that 9 was a magic number. 29:102 -103 Other belief systems were based on the concept that the human body operated that time. 27 The 5,000-year-old mummified body of Ötzi the Iceman was found with 15 teams of tattoos, 268 a lot of which were located at points on the body where acupuncture needles are made use of for stomach or lower back problems.